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SWAMI Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence

This project aimed to identify and analyse the social, economic, legal, technological and ethical issues related to identify, privacy and security in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). The partners reviewed existing AmI projects, studies, scenarios and roadmaps to ensure that the SWAMI project captures, as far as possible, the major trends and issues. The partners composed “dark” scenarios, the aim of which was to expose key socio-economic, legal, technological and ethical risks and vulnerabilities related to issues such as identity, privacy and security that may emerge from the deployment of AmI technologies and services, many if not most of which invisible to the public. The partners defined and studied various research and policy options, which could serve as safeguards and privacy-enhancing mechanisms. The aim was to identify mechanisms, which ensure user control, user acceptance and enforceability of policy in an accessible manner, as well as to ensure that all Europeans have real equal rights and opportunities of accessibility to the Ambient Intelligence space. The partners sought to validate their findings through two workshops with other AmI and IST experts before presenting the options to the Commission in a final report. Project results were disseminated widely and continuously throughout the project and were presented at a final, high-level conference.


Completed Project (02/2005 – 07/2006)


6th Framework Programme; European Commission, DG Information Society, Unit H3


  • Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Joint Research Center, European Commission, Seville
  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Research Group on Law, Science, Technology & Society, Brussels
  • Technology & Society, Brussels
  • Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT, Oulu
  • Trilateral Research & Consultancy, London



  • Wright, David, Serge Gutwirth, Michael Friedewald, Elena Vildjiounaite, and Yves Punie, Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence, Springer, Dordrecht, 2008.

Articles and conference papers

  • Friedewald, Michael, “Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence: Outline of a research agenda on the European Level”, in Dieter Hutter, and Markus Ullmann (eds.), Security in Pervasive Computing. Proceedings of the second International Conference, SPC 2005, Boppard, Germany, April 6-8, 2005, Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, 2005, pp. 63-69.
  • Maghiros, Ioannis, Yves Punie, Sabine Delaitre, Paul de Hert, Serge Gutwirth, Wim Schreurs, Anna Agata Moscibroda, Michael Friedewald, Ralf Lindner, David Wright, Elena Vildjiounaite, and Petteri Alahuhta, “Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence”, in Achilles D. Kameas, and Dimitris Papalexopoulos (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd IET International Conference on Intelligent Environments (IE 06), 5-6 July 2006, Athens, IET Press, Stevenage, 2006, pp. 245-250.
  • Vildjiounaite, Elena, Petteri Alahuhta, Pasi Ahonen, David Wright, and Michael Friedewald, “Design Guidelines for Analysis and Safeguarding of Privacy Threats in Ubicomp Applications”, in Soraya Kouadri Mostéfaoui, Zakaria Maamar, and George M. Giaglis (eds.), Ubiquitous Computing, Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Ubiquitous Computing, IWUC 2006, In conjunction with ICEIS 2006, Paphos, Cyprus, May 2006., INSTICC Press, Setúbal, Portugal, 2006, pp. 49-61.
  • Friedewald, Michael, and Ralf Lindner, “Datenschutz, Privatsphäre und Identität in intelligenten Umgebungen: Eine Szenarioanalyse”, in Friedemann Mattern (ed.), Die Informatisierung des Alltags: Leben in smarten Umgebungen, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2007, pp. 207-231.
  • Friedewald, Michael, and Ralf Lindner, “Ubiquitous Computing: Herausforderungen für Datenschutz und Datensicherheit”, Der Datenschutz-Berater, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2007, pp. 8-10.
  • Friedewald, Michael, Elena Vildjiounaite, Yves Punie, and David Wright, “Privacy, Identity, and Security in Ambient Intelligence: A Scenario Analysis”, Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2007, pp. 15-29.
  • Lindner, Ralf, and Michael Friedewald, “Gesellschaftliche Herausforderung durch intelligente Umgebungen: Dunkle Szenarien als TA-Werkzeug”, ITA manu:script ITA-07-07, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, 2007.
  • Wright, David, Serge Gutwirth, and Michael Friedewald, “Shining Light on the Dark Side of Ambient Intelligence”, Foresight: The Journal of Future Studies, Strategic Thinking and Policy, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2007, pp. 46-59.
  • Wright, David, “Alternative futures: AmI scenarios and Minority Report”, Futures, Vol. 40, 2008, pp. 473–488.
  • Friedewald, Michael, and Ralf Lindner, “Gesellschaftliche Herausforderung durch intelligente Umgebungen”, Technikfolgenabschätzung – Theorie und Praxis, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2008, pp. 78-83.
  • Wright, David, Michael Friedewald, Wim Schreurs, Michiel Verlinden, Serge Gutwirth, Yves Punie, Ioannis Maghiros, Elena Vildjiounaite, and Petteri Alahuhta, “The illusion of security”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2008, pp. 56-63.
  • de Hert, Paul, Serge Gutwirth, Anna Moscibroda, David Wright, and Gloria Gonzalez-Fuster, “Legal Safeguards for Privacy and Data Protection in Ambient Intelligence”, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2009, pp. 435-444.
  • Wright, David, “Constructing Dark Scenarios for Privacy Policy Formulation”, in Susanne Giesecke, Patrick Crehan, and Stephan Elkins (eds.), The European Foresight Monitoring Network: Collection of EFMN Briefs, Part 2, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Luxembourg, 2009, pp. 106-107.

Official Deliverables